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I. SEARCH TYPES

ANY OF THE WORDS: Finds any words

Example: IPC CrPC Constitution. Finds judgments that matches words IPC or CrPC or Constituion.

ALL OF THE WORDS: Finds all the words or phases

Example: IPC CrPC Constitution. Finds judgment that matches all the above mentioned words.

EXACT PHRASE: Finds a single phrase

Example: "One who comes to Court must come with clean hands". Finds judgment that matches the phrase “One who comes to Court must come with clean hands”

BOOLEAN: Finds a structured group of words or phrases linked by AND, OR, NOT, W/, NOT W/

Examples:

“Constitution of India” – the entire phrase must be present;

“Constitution of India” AND IPC – both phrases must be present

“Constitution of India” OR IPC – either phrase must be present

IPC AND NOTConstitution of India” - only IPC must be present

IPC W/5 302 – IPC must occur within 5 words of 302

IPC NOT W/27 302 - IPC must not occur within 27 words of 302

Note: Use ( ) when a search includes two or more connectors and "quotation marks" around phrases.

Examples:

(IPC OR “Indian Penal Code” OR “Penal Code”) AND (“Constitution of India” OR “Indian Constitution”)

(IPC 302) OR (302 IPC) OR (IPC W/5 302)

(IPC 302) OR (302 IPC) OR (IPC W/5 302)

(IPC OR “Indian Penal Code” OR “Penal Code”) W/5 302

II. SEARCH FEATURES

STEMMING:

Finds grammatical variations on endings, like applies, applied, applying in a search for apply.

FUZZY SEARCHING:

Finds words even if they are misspelled. A search for alphabet with a fuzziness of 1 would also find alphaqet. With a fuzziness of 3, the same search would find both alphaqet and alpkaqet

PHONIC SEARCHING

Finds words that sound alike, like Smythe in a search for Smith

SYNONYM EXPANSION

Finds word synonyms using a comprehensive English language thesaurus.

WILDCARDS SEARCHING (* and ?)

A search word can contain the wildcard characters * and ?. A ? in a word matches any single character, and a * matches any number of characters. The wildcard characters can be in any position in a word. For example:

1. appl* would match apple, application, etc.

2. *cipl* would match principle, participle, etc.

3. appl? would match apply and apple but not apples.

4. ap*ed would match applied, approved, etc.

III. SPECIAL CHARACTERS

1. ? matches any single character

 Example: appl? matches apply or apple

2. * matches any number of characters

 Example: appl*ion matches application

3. ~~ indicates numeric range

 Example: 14~~18 looks for 14, 15, 16, 17 or 18

4. % Fuzzy search:

 Example: ba%nana matches banana, bananna.

5. # Phonic search.

 Example: #smith matches smith, smythe.

6. & Synonym search.

 Example: fast& matches quick.

IV. NATURAL LANGUAGE SEARCHING

A natural language search request is any combination of words, phrases, or sentences. After a natural language search, www.legaldatabse.in sorts retrieved documents by their relevance to your search request. Weighting of retrieved documents takes into account:

the number of documents each word in your search request appears in (the more documents a word appears in, the less useful it is in distinguishing relevant from irrelevant documents);

the number of times each word in the request appears in the documents; and the density of hits in each document.

Noise words and search connectors like NOT and OR are ignored.

V. CONNECTORS

AND Connector

Use the AND connector in a search request to connect two expressions, both of which must be found in any document retrieved. For example:

“apple pie” AND poached pear” would retrieve any document that contained both phrases.

(apple OR banana) AND (pear w/5 grape) would retrieve any document that (1) contained either apple OR banana, AND (2) contained pear within 5 words of grape.

If the word AND is one of the search words then use the character “~” after the word AND without any space. Example: “High Court and Supreme Court” should be written as “High Court and~ Supreme Court

OR Connector

Use the OR connector in a search request to connect two expressions, at least one of which must be found in any document retrieved. For example, apple pie” OR “poached pear” would retrieve any document that contained apple pie, poached pear, or both.

If the word OR is one of the search words then use the character “~” after the word OR without any space. Example: “High Court OR Supreme Court” should be written as High Court” OR~ “Supreme Court

W/N Connector

Use the W/N connector in a search request to specify that one word or phrase must occur within N words of the other. For example, IPC w/5 302 would retrieve any document that contained IPC within 5 words of 302. The

following are examples of search requests using W/N:

(IPC OR “Indian Penal Code”) w/5 302

(IPC w/5 Section) w/10 302

(IPC AND Section) w/10 302

Some types of complex expressions using the W/N connector will produce ambiguous results and should not be used. The following are examples of ambiguous search requests:

(apple and banana) w/10 (pear and grape)

(apple w/10 banana) w/10 (pear and grape)

In general, at least one of the two expressions connected by W/N must be a single word or phrase or a group of words and phrases connected by OR. Example:

(apple and banana) w/10 (pear or grape)

(apple and banana) w/10 orange tree

NOT and NOT W/N

Use NOT in front of any search expression to reverse its meaning. This allows you to exclude documents from a search. Example:

“Indian Penal Code” and not “Civil Procedure Code”

If the word NOT is one of the search words then use the character “~” after the word NOT without any space. Example: “orders not passed” should be written as “orders not~ passed

NOT standing alone can be the start of a search request. For example, not IPC would retrieve all documents that does not contain IPC.

If NOT is not the first connector in a request, you need to use either AND or OR with NOT:

1. IPC AND not “Civil Procedure Code”

2. IPC or not 302

3. not (IPC w/5 302)

The NOT W/ ("not within") operator allows you to search for a word or phrase not in association with another word or phrase. Example:

4. IPC not w/20 Constitution

Unlike the W/ operator, NOT W/ is not symmetrical. That is, IPC not w/20 Constitution is not the same as Constitution not w/20 IPC. In the IPC not w/20 Constitution request, www.legaldatabse.in searches for IPC and excludes cases where IPC is too close to Constitution. In the Constitution not w/20 IPC request, www.legaldatabse.in searches for Constitution and excludes cases where Constitution is too close to IPC.

TRICKS FOR ACCURATE RESULTS

1. Title Search:

1. Do not use words like V., Vs., Versus etc. For example, if you are searching for a “Vinny Parmvir Parmar Vs. Parmvir Parmar” then you should type it as Vinny AND Parmvir AND Parmar in Title Field.

2. If you are not aware of the correct spelling, then use phonic search.

3. Avoid using words acronyms and abbreviations in title such as Ltd., Limited, & etc. For example, if you are searching for a “A. Subash Babu Vs. State of A.P. and Anr” then you should type it as “Subash Babu” AND “State”.

4. Do not use the symbol “&in the Title. Use the word AND instead of “&”.

2. Citation Search:

1. Do not use brackets while searching for citations.

2. Do not use exact phrase search while searching for citations. Use the connector AND to connect all the words.

3. Example: 2008 AIR (SC) 155 should be written as 2008 AND AIR AND SC AND 155.